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Only 41% Of People Who Were Given Free Preventive Medications Following Their Heart Attacks Were Still Taking Them 1.5 Years Later

Posted  July 9, 2019  by  Yoni Freedhoff

You might think that having a heart attack would be motivating when it came to behaviour change, and that taking medications is a very straightforward behaviour.

And yet.

The Post-Myocardial Infarction Free Rx Event and Economic Evaluation (MI FREEE) trial set out to study whether or not cost had a role to play in why so many patients, even post heart attack, don’t take the medications prescribed to them in the hopes of preventing another one by freely providing them with those medications.

Results wise, though the group receiving free preventive medications were taking more of them than the group that did not, at the end 1.5 years, only 41% of those receiving all their medications for free, medications prescribed to them after they had an actual heart attack, were taking them.

So file these results under human beings, even when faced with knowledge, and in this case knowledge coupled with a very real glimpse at mortality, struggle to maintain even the easiest of behaviour changes, and consider that in the context of the trope of education and personal responsibility as the sole means to target diet and weight related diseases. If we want to see population level changes, we’re going to need to change the food environment.

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#465 When a work friend evolves into an outside-of-work friend

Posted  July 9, 2019  by  Anonymous

The nine to five brought you together. Cracking jokes by the copier, swapping stories on the line, laughing in the lunchroom, you found a friend between policies, procedures, and paperwork. When you got together you started noticing you were just you, just hanging out, just laughing about your day. Then one day your friendship zoomed […]

The post #465 When a work friend evolves into an outside-of-work friend appeared first on 1000 Awesome Things.

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Louisiana’s Cancer Alley Residents Take the Fight for Environmental Justice on the Road

Posted  July 8, 2019  by  Julie Dermansky
Sharon Lavigne and Barbara Washington, St. James Parish residents, in Washington, D.C.

Read time: 9 mins

Last month, four residents from Louisiana neighborhoods impacted by air pollution traveled far from their Mississippi River parishes to Washington, D.C., and Tokyo, Japan, seeking help in their struggle for clean air.

St. James Parish’s Sharon Lavigne and Barbara Washington, both fighting to prevent additional petrochemical plant construction near their homes, attended the Congressional Convening on Environmental Justice in Washington, D.C., on June 26.* 

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Here Are Some of the Climate-Linked Disasters and Rollbacks Trump’s ‘Environmental Leadership’ Speech Won’t Cover

Posted  July 8, 2019  by  Sharon Kelly

Read time: 4 mins

This story is being updated.

President Donald Trump is speaking to “America’s environmental leadership” in an address today, where he reportedly will describe the country’s air and water as clean.

The speech started late, and with a reference to the heavy rains in Washington, D.C.

The rest of the world may be forgiven some skepticism about America’s environmental leadership — particularly under Trump. Within six months of taking office, Donald Trump had announced that he planned to pull the U.S. out of the Paris Agreement, the world’s framework for coordinating the international response to climate change, which scientists and world leaders have described as the most consequential environmental issue of our time.

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How Canada is preparing for the next big earthquake

Posted  July 8, 2019  by  Anonymous

english Bay, Vancouver

Vancouver, Canada’s third most populous city, sits within the Cascadia subduction zone, known to produce powerful earthquakes. (Photo: JamesZ_Flickr, CC BY 2.0)

Editor’s note: This story originally appeared in the June 2015 print issue of Canadian Geographic with the title “The Big One.

Kate Moran sleeps with a pair of shoes and a flashlight by her bed in Victoria.

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Big Oil’s ‘Natural Climate Solutions’ Feasibility Overblown, Critics Say

Posted  July 6, 2019  by  Anonymous
Deforestation in Central Kalimatan

Read time: 7 mins

A recently published report has called into question the efficacy of land-based solutions being pushed by NGOs and major oil companies alike to mitigate climate change.

Natural climate solutions (NCS) — including programs referred to as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) — represent a body of land-based approaches for capturing carbon from the atmosphere and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. NCS proposals range from enhanced forest management to conservation agriculture and ecosystem restoration.

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More Signs That Natural Gas Can’t Compete With Renewables on Cost

Posted  July 5, 2019  by  Anonymous
solar panels at twilight

Read time: 7 mins

From a natural gas industry conference to a major metropolitan area, more signs are emerging that natural gas is in a losing economic battle with renewables and battery storage. And considering recent news that existing fossil fuel projects are already enough to push the world past international climate goals, this emerging economic reality couldn’t come soon enough.

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Philadelphia Explosion One in String of ‘Near Miss’ Accidents at Refineries Using Deadly Chemical

Posted  July 3, 2019  by  Sharon Kelly
PES refinery protest

Read time: 10 mins

Next Friday, July 12, the Philadelphia Energy Solutions (PES) refinery in south Philadelphia is slated to close its doors, marking the end of an era that began in 1866, one year after the Civil War ended, when 50,000 barrels of kerosene and chemicals were first stored on site.

The plant — which continued to struggle financially after emerging from bankruptcy in August 2018 — experienced a major industrial accident on June 21. That morning, a massive fireball lit up the pre-dawn sky over Philadelphia after leaking hydrocarbon gas had ignited. Five workers were injured, all treated on site. Three explosions shook walls in Philadelphia and the blast was reportedly felt as far away as South Jersey.

Emerging evidence suggests that the disaster could have been far more severe — in large part due to a deadly chemical used at the PES refinery and roughly 50 others nationwide.

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Williams Pipeline Support Highlights Environmental Defense Fund’s Long, Cozy Relationship With Fracking Pseudoscience

Posted  July 3, 2019  by  guest
The Narrows

Read time: 11 mins

By . Originally posted on Eyes on the Ties, the online news site of Public Accountability Initiative and LittleSis.

The Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), an environmental group with close ties to the corporate community, has taken a friendly approach to the explosion of the natural gas industry in the United States. In the early years of the fracking boom, EDF touted natural gas as a “bridge fuel” toward renewable energy. The organization helped to promote industry-funded misinformation by signing off on sham studies — for example from the University of Texas and the State University of New York at Buffalo — that claimed fracking was safe, but were fatally marred by basic errors in arithmetic and undisclosed conflicts of interest.

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Cancer Research UK (@CR_UK) Launches Awful New Fat Shaming Advertising Campaign

Posted  July 2, 2019  by  Yoni Freedhoff

According to Cancer Research UK’s new public advertisements, obesity is apparently the new smoking.

What that means of course is that by formally adopting, amplifying, and promoting the message that obesity, like smoking, is a choice people make, Cancer Research UK fuels hateful weight based stigma.

More amazing perhaps is that the aim of the campaign is to apparently target the environment with their ads steering people, in the small print that people will likely miss and certainly can’t click on in train stations, to their web page calling for an end to junk food advertising to kids.

Obesity is the normal consequence of normal people living in abnormal, obesigenic, environments. Obesity often has hugely negative impacts upon health and quality of life (especially at its extremes), fuelled in no small part by the never ending blame, shame, and scorn heaped upon those who have obesity by society, and yet here is Cancer Research UK’s campaign to further justify that weight hate.

Shame on them. They absolutely should have known better.

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Obsession-Worthy Peanut Butter Cookie Ice Cream

Posted  June 29, 2019  by  Angela (Oh She Glows)

Many years ago, I was reading a blog post by a blogger I’d been following for a while. She wrote about a recent struggle with depression and her honest words made such an impact on me. I remember thinking how brave it was for her to tell her story. While I hated that she was […]

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Christmas

Flourless Peanut Butter Cookies

Posted  June 29, 2019  by  Angela (Oh She Glows)

photo credit: Ashley McLaughlin  Comments (2) | Share on Facebook | Tweet | Pin It | Snapchat | © copyright 2019 Oh She Glows. All Rights Reserved.

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Saturday Stories: Flight MH370, Adult Vaccination, and A Lost Aircraft Carrier

Posted  June 29, 2019  by  Yoni Freedhoff

William Langewiesche, in The Atlantic, with just incredible reporting on what we do and don’t know about the final flight of Malaysia Airlines MH370.

Andre Picard, in The Globe and Mail (but via his Tumblr), on how we’ve forgotten that vaccination isn’t just for children.

Ed Caesar, in The New York Times, on the epic hunt for a lost WWII aircraft carrier.

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Quirks & Quarks is on hiatus. There will be no more podcasts until the July 20th Apollo 11 anniversary special

Posted  June 28, 2019  by  Anonymous

Podcast placeholder leading up to July 20

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UCSF Adds Fossil Fuels To Industry Documents Library

Posted  June 25, 2019  by  John Mashey

Read time: 5 mins

Today, UCSF Library launched a new Fossil Fuel Industry Documents Archive featuring over 1,000 internal documents from the fossil fuel industry illustrating strategies to cast doubt on climate science and delay policy action. The documents were collected over two decades by the Climate Investigations Center.

UC San Francisco‘s Industry Documents Library (IDL) is a unique resource.  It gathers and organizes internal documents from companies that privatize profits and socialize costs, risks or damage to health or environment.

Real science is often inconvenient for profits, so such companies spend money on politics, disinformation, doubt-creation and attacks on science and scientists, sometimes via “independent” think tanks or front groups often covered here on DeSmog.

UCSF has gotten tobacco documents for decades, but over the last few years has added Drug, Chemical and Food sections to the archive as well. Internal documents from lawsuits, whistleblowers and other sources can be quite valuable for exposing malfeasance, helping community action, backing legislation and supporting lawsuits. It is incredibly helpful to have one database of well-curated documents from multiple industries, as they use similar tactics often employed by some of the same people and organizations, as illustrated by personal experience below.

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CEO of Major Shale Oil Company “Has Second Thoughts” on Fracking Rush, Wall Street Journal Reports

Posted  June 24, 2019  by  Sharon Kelly

Read time: 6 mins

On Monday, the Wall Street Journal featured a profile of Scott Sheffield, CEO of Pioneer Natural Resources, whose company is known among investors for its emphasis on drawing oil and gas from the Permian basin in Texas using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, or fracking.

Back in 2014, Sheffield told Forbes that he expected Pioneer could produce a million barrels of oil a day from the Permian basin by 2024 – up from 45,000 barrels a day in 2011.

Now, Sheffield, who left the helm of Pioneer in 2016 and returned this February, says that those million-barrel-a-day plans are looking increasingly doubtful as the industry has struggled to prove to investors that it’s capable not only of producing enormous volumes of oil and gas, but that it can do so while booking profits rather than losses.

We lost the growth investors,” Pioneer CEO Scott Sheffield told the Journal. “Now we’ve got to attract a whole other set of investors.”

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Majority of Americans Know Fossil Fuel Companies Drive Climate Change, Should Pay for Damages

Posted  June 24, 2019  by  guest

Read time: 3 mins

ExxonKnew protesters

By Karen Savage, Climate Liability News. Originally posted on Climate Liability News.

The majority of Americans say fossil fuel companies should pay for damage caused by climate change, according to a recent poll released by Yale University on Wednesday.

Researchers asked 5,131 Americans how much they think global warming is harming their local communities, who they think should be responsible for paying for the damages, and whether they support lawsuits to hold fossil fuel companies accountable for those costs.

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On Instagram, RD Working For Welch’s Implies That Drinking Welch’s Grape Juice Won’t Raise Your Blood Sugar (By @DylanMacKayPhD)

Posted  June 24, 2019  by  Yoni Freedhoff

Today’s guest post comes from Dylan MacKay. Dylan is a nutritional biochemist who has type 1 diabetes and when I saw RD Marie Spano’s Instagram post, I knew he would have both personal and professional thoughts to share and so I invited him to do so.

I don’t know what it is with grapes but they always seem to be raisin my ire…

I mean as a person with type 1 diabetes, a PhD in Human Nutritional Science, and who does diabetes research and occasionally clinical trials looking at glucose response, maybe I’m not the one to talk about this, but I just can’t not.

Recently a Welch’s (*cough* big grape juice) “nutrition advisor” posted the above nutrition translation travesty on Instagram.

This is really kind of surprised me because when I have low blood sugar I often drink grape juice, How am I still alive? I mean I can honestly say there are times grape juice may have saved my life (by raising my blood sugar). Yet you could potentially look at this Instagram post and fairly think

drinking 100% juice made from polyphenol-rich fruit juice does not raise your blood sugar

unlike apparently that bad candy or pop that raises your blood sugar.

That would be of course 100% wrong.

Polyphenols are not magic sugar blockers, otherwise we would be using them to treat diabetes and you would get serious gastrointestinal upset from eating berries and grapes. I feel like you don’t even really need to be an RD to see this messaging is bad (Seriously, Welch’s advisors, how much do you get paid for your credibility?). Especially on a social media platform, where someone might not scroll to the end of the associated comment and look at the “reference” provided.

Speaking of the reference used for this knowledge translation crime, it is for a review article called Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism and having reviewed it I can say it does not in support the claim in that post. Most of the article talks about animal or cell culture results that show polyphenols may impact glucose digestion or absorption, but there’s nothing in the article showing it stops it. It even concludes that

To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant endpoints… are needed.

The closest thing in the article supporting the Instagram post is

The shape of the plasma glucose curve with reduced concentrations in the early phase and a slightly elevated concentration in the later phase indicates delayed response due to berry consumption

about a study done with 12 healthy participants looking at berry puree (rich in polyphenols). The polyphenols (or something else in the berries) changed the timing of the blood sugar elevation.

I suppose the Welch’s RD nutrition advisor might say

well actually Dylan, changing the shape of the blood sugar elevation means it doesn’t actually raise blood sugar like candy

and we could get into a long argument of how you define “like”. When people are arguing over minutia or semantics big food companies have won.

This type of nutrition misinformation advertising works because ultimately it is designed to ruin peoples’ trust in nutritional science and nutrition experts (especially RDs). If consumers are confused and can’t trust anything in nutrition, they are ripe for the next trend or fad or advertising claim. That is a good thing for companies, but a bad thing for people.

If you like grape juice, drink it, I sometimes do when I have low blood sugar (I have chugged maple syrup for that too so…), but know that grape juice will raise your blood sugar, and liquid calories, like those found from the 9 teaspoons of sugar per glass of grape juice, are an easy way to go over on your energy intake. Most of us are trying to avoid excess energy intake, so for that, in my opinion, you can’t beat water.

Dylan MacKay PhD is a nutritional biochemist and an Assistant Professor at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg. He is also a Clinical Trialist at the George and Fay Yee Center for Healthcare Innovation. Dylan has a special interest in human clinical trials related to lifestyle and diabetes. He is originally from St. John’s, Newfoundland where he started his graduate studies at Memorial University.

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Cognitive Dissonance: Canada Declares a National Climate Emergency and Approves a Pipeline

Posted  June 23, 2019  by  guest

Read time: 5 mins

Trudeau protesters in Vancouver

By Warren Mabee, Queen’s University, Ontario

On June 18, the government of Canada declared a national climate emergency. The next day, the same government approved the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion (TMX), which will be able to move almost 600,000 barrels of oil per day from Alberta to the Port of Burnaby in British Columbia.

If this seems like a contradiction, you are not alone.

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Former Shale Gas CEO Says Fracking Revolution Has Been “A Disaster” For Drillers, Investors

Posted  June 23, 2019  by  Sharon Kelly

Read time: 10 mins

Steve Schlotterbeck, who led drilling company EQT as it expanded to become the nation’s largest producer of natural gas in 2017, arrived at a petrochemical industry conference in Pittsburgh Friday morning with a blunt message about shale gas drilling and fracking.

The shale gas revolution has frankly been an unmitigated disaster for any buy-and-hold investor in the shale gas industry with very few limited exceptions,” Schlotterbeck, who left the helm of EQT last year, continued. “In fact, I’m not aware of another case of a disruptive technological change that has done so much harm to the industry that created the change.”

While hundreds of billions of dollars of benefits have accrued to hundreds of millions of people, the amount of shareholder value destruction registers in the hundreds of billions of dollars,” he said. “The industry is self-destructive.”

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Saturday Stories: Anti-Vax Conferences, Vulnerable Child Syndrome, and Taffy Brodesser-Akner

Posted  June 22, 2019  by  Yoni Freedhoff

Anna Merlan, in Jezebel, in what she learned getting kicked out of America’s biggest anti-vax conference.

Rachel Pearson, in The New Yorker, on vulnerable child syndrome

Jen Ortiz, in Cosmopolitan, with a fabulous profile of celebrity profiler and author of the book I ordered on my kindle yesterday Fleishman is in Trouble’s Taffy Brodesser-Akner

[And if you don’t follow me on Twitter or Facebook, here’s my most recent piece for Medscape on what actually works for obesity at a population level (hint, it’s not shame, blame, or fear)]

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Massachusetts Energy Secretary Engaged in Enbridge Facility Review While Negotiating Job With Project’s Consultant

Posted  June 21, 2019  by  Anonymous

Read time: 5 mins

Matthew Beaton

While still in office, Massachusetts’ former energy and environmental secretary Matthew Beaton, who recently left his post for the private sector, took part in discussions about a natural gas project involving his new employer, DeSmog has found.

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Thousands of Fossil Fuel ‘Observers’ Attended Climate Negotiations: UNFCCC Data 2005-2018 for COP1-COP24

Posted  June 21, 2019  by  guest

Read time: 12 mins

IETA exhibit at COP24

Originally posted on Climate Investigations Center.

The collection of Global Climate Coalition (GCC) documents we compiled and released this April reveal that the organization had a singular focus, slowing down or derailing the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations process and “tracking” the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), undermining the scientists’ message of urgency.  In the GCC meeting minutes and press releases we see numerous interventions at the UN meetings along with strategies, budgets and debriefs.

So we decided it would be interesting to compile every fossil fuel company and trade group delegate who ever attended UNFCCC meetings. This research debuted in an Agence-France Press AFP piece and on Yahoo News this week during a UNFCCC meeting in Bonn, Germany.

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Your Wi-Fi router could be used to watch you breathe and monitor your heartbeat

Posted  June 21, 2019  by  Anonymous

Your Wi-Fi router could be used to watch you in your home

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We’ve bred dogs to have expressive eyebrows that manipulate our emotions

Posted  June 21, 2019  by  Anonymous

Dogs expressive eyebrows make us fall for their cute faces

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Do electric car batteries take more CO2 to make than they save?

Posted  June 21, 2019  by  Anonymous

Do electric car batteries take more CO2 to make than they save?

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A face-eating parasite is devastating Darwin’s famous Galapagos finches

Posted  June 21, 2019  by  Anonymous

Darwin’s finches are being devastated by beak parasites

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AI is now learning to do things it hasn’t been taught

Posted  June 21, 2019  by  Anonymous

An AI learned numeracy while being trained for another task

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Do your genes smell bad? DNA shows what our noses know

Posted  June 21, 2019  by  Anonymous

Honing in on why some people think beets taste and smell like dirt

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A research assistant named Spongebob? Sea sponges collect data for science

Posted  June 21, 2019  by  Anonymous

Sea sponges are better than scientists at DNA collection

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Bonobo mothers act as wing-mums for their sons

Posted  June 21, 2019  by  Anonymous

Bonobo mothers act as matchmakers for their sons

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The Once-Gweat Wabble of Wowdy Webels…

Posted  June 21, 2019  by  Balbulican

It’s been been a while since I checked in on my favourite “fearless source of news, opinion, and activism that you can’t find anywhere else”. I was therefore shocked – shocked! – to discover that the Rebel appears in the…

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Congressional Dems Investigating Why Big Oil Is ‘Only Winner’ in Clean Car Standard Rollbacks

Posted  June 20, 2019  by  Ben Jervey

Read time: 4 mins

House Energy and Commerce Committee Chair Frank Pallone, Jr. during Thursday's hearing on the Trump administration clean car standards rollback

House Democrats in the Energy and Commerce Committee are actively investigating the oil industry’s role in shaping the Trump administration’s proposed rollback of greenhouse gas and fuel economy standards for cars and light duty trucks.

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A Democratic Think Tank, the Progressive Policy Institute, Is Promoting Pushback Against Climate Lawsuits

Posted  June 20, 2019  by  Anonymous

Read time: 7 mins

Phil Goldberg at Progressive Policy Institute climate event

As part of a growing trend of lawsuits over climate change impacts, cities and states across the U.S. are seeking damages from oil, gas, and coal companies whose products drive the crisis and which for years evidently engaged in disinformation and denial campaigns to stall climate action.

Now the fossil fuel industry is pushing back, taking a page out of Big Tobacco’s playbook to rein in that liability litigation, and getting help from an unexpected source.

Behind the scenes, politically affiliated groups are quietly providing support. One of the outfits promoting the efforts to counter the slew of climate lawsuits is none other than the Progressive Policy Institute (PPI), a center-left Washington, D.C.-based think tank with links to the Democratic party. 

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Trump’s EPA Signs ‘Deadly’ Clean Power Plan Replacement

Posted  June 20, 2019  by  guest

Read time: 5 mins

Andrew Wheeler and Scott Pruitt

By Olivia Rosane, EcoWatch. Reposted with permission from EcoWatch.

Former coal lobbyist and Trump-appointed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Andrew Wheeler signed a rule Wednesday that officially replaces the Obama-era Clean Power Planwith a new regulation that Wheeler said could lead to the opening of more coal plants, the Associated Press reported.

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Exercise

Scotland’s “National Walking Strategy” Actually Increased Recreational Walking (A Tiny Bit) For The Whole Population!

Posted  June 19, 2019  by  Yoni Freedhoff

Cynically, I’ve been known to ask for examples of population based initiatives that actually led to sustained increases in physical activity (with the expectation of there not being any).

Well, I can’t do so anymore as Scotland’s managed to increase recreational walking by 13% over a 6 year period for the whole of their population!

Their National Walking Strategy targeted Scotland’s 5 million residents with messages about the health benefits of walking.

The strategy involved multiple sectors including:

  • Communication and public education.
  • Transport and the environment.
  • Urban design and infrastructure.
  • Health and social care.
  • Education.
  • Community-wide approaches.
  • Sport and recreation.

And together their aim was to create a culture of walking by way of developing better walking environments that supported ease and convenience.

How to counsel patients on physical activity became a topic in medical schools. The Daily Mile encouraged 1,000 schools to help every student walk, run, or jog a mile a day, increased funding for active transport programs was obtained including a doubling of infrastructure funding for same, #SoMe was leveraged to share encouragement and information to the public, and community walking programs were launched nationwide.

Now before you get too excited, the bar was low to begin with whereby the increase in walking represented the self-report of walking at least 30 minutes for recreation once over the past month, but at least it’s a start.

Changing behaviour requires more than just education and a good reason to do so, it also requires a change to social norms and culture, as well as environmental engineering. Clearly there’s more to do in Scotland and elsewhere, but nice to see that these needles might actually be movable.

Photo by Kim Traynor [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

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Trans Mountain Pipeline Approved

Posted  June 18, 2019  by  bigcitylib

…but far from built. I’ve talked about this  before.  My opinion is that Trudeau did the right thing by approving the pipeline.  You can’t really rule this country if the entire middle bit hates your guts because you took away the…

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Trudeau Approval of Tar Sands Pipeline, Say Critics, Would Make ‘Absolute Mockery’ of Climate Emergency Declaration Approved Less Than 24 Hours Ago

Posted  June 18, 2019  by  guest

Read time: 3 mins

Justin Trudeau waves

By Jake Johnson, Common Dreams. Originally posted on Common DreamsCC BYSA 3.0

Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau on Tuesday is reportedly expected to approve a $5.5 billion expansion of the Trans Mountain tar sands pipeline, a move environmentalists warned would make an “absolute mockery” of the House of Commons’ vote to declare a climate emergency just hours earlier.

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The Defense Department Is Worried About Climate Change — and Also a Huge Carbon Emitter

Posted  June 17, 2019  by  guest

Read time: 5 mins

Main image: A U.S. Navy F/A-18 Hornet launching from the USS Theodore Roosevelt on full afterburner.

By Neta C. Crawford, Boston University

Scientists and security analysts have warned for more than a decade that global warming is a potential national security concern.

They project that the consequences of global warming — rising seas, powerful storms, famine and diminished access to fresh water — may make regions of the world politically unstable and prompt mass migration and refugee crises.

Some worry that wars may follow.

Yet with few exceptions, the U.S. military’s significant contribution to climate change has received little attention. Although the Defense Department has significantly reduced its fossil fuel consumption since the early 2000s, it remains the world’s single largest consumer of oil — and as a result, one of the world’s top greenhouse gas emitters.

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