Son of small farmers in the Tarn, Jaurès is a professor of philosophy and psychology when, twenty-five years, he was elected in Toulouse 1885. It is neither socialist or Marxist but the Republican side. Four years later, he lost his seat and returned to his teacher loves, while studying for a doctorate in Letters.
Political interests increasingly, it participates and writes his thoughts in a daily Toulouse radical trend. Haunted by it, he became a councilor and deputy mayor of the city of Toulouse. At that time, workers have many difficulties and Jaurès is marked by solidarity. Then, a miners' strike became a turning point where it will confirm his beliefs.
This strike is triggered by the dismissal of a worker and socialist leader, became mayor of Carmaux. These are the absences of the worker–mayor, necessary to fulfill its political obligations, which are the pretext for his dismissal. Minors see it as a denial of rights of the working class to be active in politics. 1500 soldiers were sent by the president to maintain order, indicating that opts for employers. Jaurès supported the strike and accused the capitalists not respecting minors. This is an opportunity for him to define the class struggle and socialism. Finally, worker wins mayor's request and obtain an unlimited leave to serve his fellow.
In 1893, a House seat is vacated by a resigning member and Jaurès was elected as an independent socialist labor vote through despite massive opposition from the rural class. It asserts itself as an outstanding orator. It accompanies the harsh social struggles facing a brutal employers.
For five years, he became the champion of minors, workers and farmers in general, who are fighting against their bosses. Hike field, it goes on-site to account for situations that affect workers. It attacks anarchists, brutality patterns, to government repression, censorship of newspapers and Socialist MEPs, the police that deals with agent provocateur… He defends the peace. He is courageous.
Then comes the Dreyfus affair. The captain of the French army, Jewish, is convicted 1894 to prison for life for having delivered the Germans secret documents. First, Jaurès believed guilty but in August 1898, he became his passionate advocate following a new revelation shows another commander is the true traitor. While the socialist and Marxist Guesde judge that the proletariat does not have to defend a bourgeois, Jean Jaurès is committed in its favor, writing : « We are not required, to stay in socialism, locking us out of humanity ». Dreyfus's innocence is finally recognized and he will be released to serve in the army yet. Following his speech, its action and its success, the political influence of national Jaurès becomes. Nevertheless, employers are able to do to fight elections 1898.
Intellectual, he wrote many political and historical works, whose «evidence of the Dreyfus Affair» and leading a team to draft «Socialist History of Contemporary France», including some he wrote himself on the French revolution. He supported the Republican government appointed a socialist trade and industry. In 1902, it is one of those who founded the «Parti Socialiste français» and he regains his seat and keep it for the next three terms until his death.
Orateur hors pair, he became the spokesman for the small group of Socialist deputies in the National Assembly. It includes all the left parties which Marxists, supports the Government is right, but criticism for its failure to quickly implement social reforms. It defends freedom of conscience and proposes the separation of church and state.
It creates a log, the’Humanity, involving its traditional allies and writers like Anatole France and Jules Renard. Its goal is the Socialist Unity. It reached in the 1905 by its acceptance of a dual direction of movement (he and a Marxist leader) and the abandonment of its support for the government. This dialogue successfully with revolutionary unions that become friendly. At the election of 1914, his socialist group gets 17% voice and 101 Members. A victory on.
Since then 10 year old, he speaketh against the coming of war. Worried, he notes the rise of nationalism in neighboring countries and rivalries between the great powers. It calls for the organization of national defense in military preparing all French. Pacifist, he sees an armed nation means to achieve peace. It is opposed to compulsory military service in which the law is finally passed, in spite of himself. In 1914, he believes that the possibilities of war have dwindled since the Balkans ended. But it was not to rely on the assassination in Sarajevo that will spark the outbreak of the First World War because of the increase that created tensions between the great powers.
It becomes the enemy « nationalistes » who want their revenge against Germany and who support the war. Jaurès, For its part,, absolutely wants peace and supports the idea of a general strike if war is triggered. It organizes events and demands of the Socialist International that intervene. « There are more than a chance for peace and salvation of civilization, is that the proletariat brings all its forces (to rule) horrible cauchemar ».
The 31 July 1914, it rises to the Chamber of Deputies, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to stop the outbreak of hostilities. He went to his diary and wrote an article going in the same direction. Then, he goes to dinner with colleagues «Coffee Crescent», Rue Montmartre. It sits near a window when a student nationalist approach, sees and fires two shots in the street. It is shot at close range. A considerable emotion seizes French. They will never forget.
The next day, Germany declared war on Russia, while France decreed general mobilization. Then, the 3 August, France and Germany are at war, and socialist, having no choice, rallied to the unity government to fight the enemy, thus respecting what Jean Jaurès said: « There is no contradiction to the maximum effort to ensure peace, and if war breaks out in spite of ourselves, to make the maximum effort to ensure the independence and integrity of the nation».
In 1924, Jean Jaurès between the Pantheon.
In terminant, This short biography of Jean Jaurès, Here are some of his words: « And you wonder why the vehemence of our words, the strength of our charges! But do remember that we speak of a century of silence! Just think that a hundred years ago there was in the workshops and in the mines of men suffering, who died without having the right to open his mouth and let, in protest, same breath misery: they were silent. Then a beginning of republican freedom came. So we talk to them, and all their muffled moans, and all the dumb revolts cried softly in their compressed chest vibrate in us, by us and burst a cry of anger that has waited too long and you do not always comprimerez. »
The Historian Michel Winock rappelle : « What is remarkable, is that it pays tribute to all the camps. This is not a sectarian. For example, about the rights of man and citizen, Marxists say that these are formal rights, a mask that overshadow the true motivations, that is to say, the defense of the interests of the bourgeoisie. This is not the opinion of Jaurès ».
That's why, after a hundred years, still spoken extensively of this remarkable politician who marked the France.